Disturbance of taste reactivity and other behavioral alterations after bilateral interleukin-1β microinjection into the cingulate cortex of the rat.
双侧白细胞介素 1 β 微量注射到大鼠扣带回皮质后味觉反应性障碍和其他行为改变。
- 作者列表："László BR","Hormay E","Szabó I","Mintál K","Nagy B","László K","Péczely L","Ollmann T","Lénárd L","Karádi Z
:The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is known to be intimately involved in food-related motivational processes and their behavioral organization, primarily by evaluating hedonic properties of the relevant stimuli. In the present study, the involvement of cingulate cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mediated mechanisms in a) gustation associated facial and somato-motor behavioral patterns of Wistar rats were examined in taste reactivity test (TR). In addition, b) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was performed to investigate the role of these cytokine mechanisms in taste sensation associated learning processes, c) the general locomotor activity of the animals was observed in open field test (OPF), and d) the potentially negative reinforcing effect of IL-1β was examined in conditioned place preference test (CPP). During the TR test, species specific behavioral patterns in response to the five basic tastes were analyzed. Response rates of ingestive and aversive patterns of the cytokine treated and the control groups differed significantly in case of the weaker bitter (QHCl, 0.03 mM), and the stronger umami (MSG, 0.5 M) tastes. IL-1β itself did not elicit CTA, it did not interfere with the acquisition of LiCl induced CTA, and it also failed to cause place preference or aversion in the CPP test. In the OPF paradigm, however, significant differences were found between the cytokine treated and the control groups in the rearing and grooming, the number of crossings, and in the distance moved. Our results indicate the involvement of cingulate cortical IL-1β mechanisms in the control of taste perception and other relevant behavioral processes.
: 前扣带皮层 (ACC)，已知密切参与食物相关的动机过程及其行为组织，主要通过评估相关刺激的享乐特性。在本研究中，扣带回皮质白细胞介素-1 β (il-1 β) 介导的机制参与 a) 在味觉反应性试验 (TR) 中检测 Wistar 大鼠的味觉相关面部和躯体运动行为模式。此外，b) 条件性味觉厌恶 (CTA) 范式被用于研究这些细胞因子机制在味觉相关学习过程中的作用，c) 在旷场试验 (OPF) 中观察到动物的一般运动活动，d)在条件位置偏好试验 (CPP) 中检测了 il-1 β 的潜在负增强作用。在 TR 测试期间，分析了响应五种基本味觉的物种特异性行为模式。在较弱的苦味 (QHCl，0.03 mM) 和较强的鲜味 (MSG，0.5 M) 的情况下，细胞因子处理组和对照组的摄入和厌恶模式的反应率显著差异味道。Il-1 β 本身没有引起 CTA，它没有干扰 LiCl 诱导的 CTA 的获得，也没有在 CPP 试验中引起位置偏好或厌恶。然而，在 OPF 范式中，细胞因子处理组和对照组在饲养和梳理、交叉次数和移动距离方面存在显著差异。我们的结果表明扣带回皮质 il-1 β 机制参与味觉和其他相关行为过程的控制。
METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.