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tRNS effects on visual contrast detection.

TRNS 对视觉对比度检测的影响。

  • 影响因子:2.21
  • DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2019.134696
  • 作者列表:"Battaglini L","Contemori G","Penzo S","Maniglia M
  • 发表时间:2020-01-19
Abstract

:In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.

摘要

: 近年来,经颅电刺激 (tES) 已被用于改善认知和知觉能力,并促进学习。在视觉领域,经颅随机噪声刺激 (tRNS),电流在两个电极之间以高频随机交替的一种 te, 在与对比度检测等任务相结合时,已显示出诱导持久知觉改善的潜力。然而,其皮层机制和在线效应尚未完全清楚, 目前还不清楚这些长期的改善是由于对比敏感度的早期知觉增强还是学习巩固等后期机制。在这里,我们测试了 tRNS 对多个空间频率和方向的影响,显示 tRNS 增强了低对比度 Gabor 的检测, 但仅适用于倾斜方向和高空间频率 (每个视角 12 个周期)。低对比度和垂直刺激未观察到改善。这些结果表明,tRNS 可以在一次训练后增强对比敏感度,但是这种早期发作取决于刺激的特征,如空间频率和方向。特别是,tRNS 的浅深度可能会影响视皮层的浅层,在这些浅层中,神经元比其他层中的细胞具有更高的首选空间频率, 而对垂直刺激效果的缺乏可能反映了视觉系统的优化,以看到面向基数的低对比度刺激,短期改善的空间很小。总之,这些结果表明,在线 tRNS 对视觉感知的影响是刺激强度和皮层解剖结构之间复杂相互作用的结果,与以前关于脑刺激的文献一致。

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相关文献
影响因子:2.21
发表时间:2020-01-19
来源期刊:Neuroscience letters
DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2019.134696
作者列表:["Battaglini L","Contemori G","Penzo S","Maniglia M"]

METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:5.13
发表时间:2020-01-16
DOI:10.1088/1741-2552/ab6cb6
作者列表:["Pelot NA","Grill WM"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.

影响因子:2.48
发表时间:2020-01-14
DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106644
作者列表:["Liu A","Friedman D","Barron DS","Wang X","Thesen T","Dugan P"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.

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