Prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons require juvenile social experience to establish adult social behavior.
- 作者列表："Bicks LK","Yamamuro K","Flanigan ME","Kim JM","Kato D","Lucas EK","Koike H","Peng MS","Brady DM","Chandrasekaran S","Norman KJ","Smith MR","Clem RL","Russo SJ","Akbarian S","Morishita H
:Social isolation during the juvenile critical window is detrimental to proper functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and establishment of appropriate adult social behaviors. However, the specific circuits that undergo social experience-dependent maturation to regulate social behavior are poorly understood. We identify a specific activation pattern of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVIs) in dorsal-medial PFC (dmPFC) prior to an active bout, or a bout initiated by the focal mouse, but not during a passive bout when mice are explored by a stimulus mouse. Optogenetic and chemogenetic manipulation reveals that brief dmPFC-PVI activation triggers an active social approach to promote sociability. Juvenile social isolation decouples dmPFC-PVI activation from subsequent active social approach by freezing the functional maturation process of dmPFC-PVIs during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Chemogenetic activation of dmPFC-PVI activity in the adult animal mitigates juvenile isolation-induced social deficits. Therefore, social experience-dependent maturation of dmPFC-PVI is linked to long-term impacts on social behavior.
: 青少年关键窗口期间的社会隔离不利于前额叶皮层 (PFC) 的正常运作和建立适当的成人社会行为。然而，经历社会经验依赖性成熟以调节社会行为的具体回路却知之甚少。我们在激活的回合之前，或由局灶性小鼠启动的回合之前，在背内侧 PFC (dmPFC) 中鉴定出小白蛋白阳性中间神经元 (PVIs) 的特异性激活模式, 但不是在刺激小鼠探索小鼠的被动发作期间。光遗传学和化学遗传学操作揭示了短暂的 dmPFC-PVI 激活触发了一种积极的社会方法来促进社交能力。青少年社会隔离通过冻结 dmPFC-PVIs 在青少年向成人过渡期间的功能成熟过程，将 dmPFC-PVI 激活与随后的主动社会方法分离。成年动物 dmPFC-PVI 活性的化学激活减轻了幼年隔离诱导的社会缺陷。因此，dmPFC-PVI 的社会经验依赖性成熟与社会行为的长期影响有关。
METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.