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Effect of transcranial static magnetic stimulation on intracortical excitability in the contralateral primary motor cortex.


  • 影响因子:2.21
  • DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2020.134871
  • 作者列表:"Shibata S","Watanabe T","Yukawa Y","Minakuchi M","Shimomura R","Mima T
  • 发表时间:2020-04-01

:Transcranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS) is a new technique of non-invasive brain stimulation using a small, high-powered neodymium magnet placed on the scalp. It can reduce cortical excitability below the magnet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tSMS on the intracortical excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the M1 where the magnet was placed. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects participated in this experiment. TSMS was applied over the left M1 for 20 min. Single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the right M1 to assess corticospinal excitability, short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) before and immediately after the intervention. ICF decreased significantly after tSMS, whereas corticospinal excitability and SICI did not change. This study suggests that tSMS applied over the M1 for 20 min has a remote modulatory effect on the interneuronal facilitatory circuit in the contralateral M1. The ability of tSMS to modulate neuronal activities in the remote cortex could expand the possibility of its clinical use.


: 经颅静态磁刺激 (tSMS) 是一种使用放置在头皮上的小型高功率钕磁铁进行非侵入性脑刺激的新技术。它可以降低磁铁下方的皮质兴奋性。本研究的目的是研究 tSMS 对放置磁铁的 M1 对侧初级运动皮层 (M1) 皮质内兴奋性的影响。14 名右利手健康受试者参加了本次实验。在左侧 M1 上应用 TSMS 20 min。在右侧 M1 应用单脉冲和配对脉冲经颅磁刺激 (TMS) 评估皮质脊髓兴奋性、短潜伏期皮质内抑制 (SICI) 和皮质内易化 (ICF) 干预前后。TSMS 后 ICF 显著降低,而皮质脊髓兴奋性和 SICI 无变化。本研究表明,在 M1 上施加 20 分钟的 tSMS 对对侧 M1 的神经元间易化回路具有远程调节作用。TSMS 调节远程皮层神经元活动的能力可以扩大其临床使用的可能性。



来源期刊:Neuroscience letters
作者列表:["Battaglini L","Contemori G","Penzo S","Maniglia M"]

METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.

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作者列表:["Pelot NA","Grill WM"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.

作者列表:["Liu A","Friedman D","Barron DS","Wang X","Thesen T","Dugan P"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.

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