Changes in the Proportion of Inhibitory Interneuron Types from Sensory to Executive Areas of the Primate Neocortex: Implications for the Origins of Working Memory Representations.
- 作者列表："Torres-Gomez S","Blonde JD","Mendoza-Halliday D","Kuebler E","Everest M","Wang XJ","Inoue W","Poulter MO","Martinez-Trujillo J
:Neuronal spiking activity encoding working memory (WM) is robust in primate association cortices but weak or absent in early sensory cortices. This may be linked to changes in the proportion of neuronal types across areas that influence circuits' ability to generate recurrent excitation. We recorded neuronal activity from areas middle temporal (MT), medial superior temporal (MST), and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) of monkeys performing a WM task and classified neurons as narrow (NS) and broad spiking (BS). The ratio NS/BS decreased from MT > MST > LPFC. We analyzed the Allen Institute database of ex vivo mice/human intracellular recordings to interpret our data. Our analysis suggests that NS neurons correspond to parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons while BS neurons are pyramidal (P) cells or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) interneurons. We labeled neurons in monkey tissue sections of MT/MST and LPFC and found that the proportion of PV in cortical layers 2/3 decreased, while the proportion of CR cells increased from MT/MST to LPFC. Assuming that primate CR/CB/PV cells perform similar computations as mice VIP/SST/PV cells, our results suggest that changes in the proportion of CR and PV neurons in layers 2/3 cells may favor the emergence of activity encoding WM in association areas.
: 编码工作记忆 (WM) 的神经元尖峰活动在灵长类关联皮质中稳健，但在早期感觉皮质中微弱或缺失。这可能与影响回路产生复发性兴奋能力的跨区域神经元类型比例的变化有关。我们记录了来自中颞叶 (MT) 、内侧上颞叶 (MST) 和外侧前额叶皮质 (LPFC) 的神经元活动执行 WM 任务并将神经元分类为窄 (NS) 和宽尖峰 (BS) 的猴子。比值 NS/BS 由 mt>> mmst decreased> LPFC 下降。我们分析了艾伦研究所的离体小鼠/人细胞内记录数据库，以解释我们的数据。我们的分析表明，NS 神经元对应于小白蛋白 (PV) 或生长抑素 (SST) 中间神经元，而 BS 神经元是锥体 (P) 细胞或血管活性肠肽 (VIP) 中间神经元。我们在 MT/MST 和 LPFC 的猴组织切片中标记神经元，发现 PV 在皮层 2/3 层中的比例下降，而 CR 细胞的比例从 MT/MST 增加到 LPFC。假设灵长类动物 CR/CB/PV 细胞执行与小鼠 VIP/SST/PV 细胞相似的计算,我们的结果表明，2/3 层细胞中 CR 和 PV 神经元比例的变化可能有利于关联区域中编码 WM 的活动的出现。
METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.