Suppression of Superficial Microglial Activation by Spinal Cord Stimulation Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats.
- 作者列表："Shinoda M","Fujita S","Sugawara S","Asano S","Koyama R","Fujiwara S","Soma K","Tamagawa T","Matsui T","Ikutame D","Ando M","Osada A","Kimura Y","Kobayashi K","Yamamoto T","Kusama-Eguchi K","Kobayashi M","Hayashi Y","Iwata K
:We evaluated the mechanisms underlying the spinal cord stimulation (SCS)-induced analgesic effect on neuropathic pain following spared nerve injury (SNI). On day 3 after SNI, SCS was performed for 6 h by using electrodes paraspinally placed on the L4-S1 spinal cord. The effects of SCS and intraperitoneal minocycline administration on plantar mechanical sensitivity, microglial activation, and neuronal excitability in the L4 dorsal horn were assessed on day 3 after SNI. The somatosensory cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the hind paw on day 3 following SNI were examined by using in vivo optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On day 3 after SNI, plantar mechanical hypersensitivity and enhanced microglial activation were suppressed by minocycline or SCS, and L4 dorsal horn nociceptive neuronal hyperexcitability was suppressed by SCS. In vivo optical imaging also revealed that electrical stimulation of the hind paw-activated areas in the somatosensory cortex was decreased by SCS. The present findings suggest that SCS could suppress plantar SNI-induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of microglial activation in the L4 dorsal horn, which is involved in spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. SCS is likely to be a potential alternative and complementary medicine therapy to alleviate neuropathic pain following nerve injury.
: 我们评价了脊髓刺激 (SCS) 诱导的镇痛作用对备用神经损伤 (SNI) 后神经病理性疼痛的潜在机制。在 SNI 后第 3 天，使用电极在 L4-S1 脊髓上进行 SCS 6 h。在 SNI 后第 3 天评估 SCS 和腹腔内米诺环素给药对足底机械敏感性、小胶质细胞活化和 L4 背角神经元兴奋性的影响。通过使用电压敏感染料的活体光学成像检查 SNI 后第 3 天电刺激后爪的体感皮层反应。SNI 后第 3 天，米诺环素或 SCS 抑制足底机械超敏反应和增强的小胶质细胞活化，SCS 抑制 L4 背角伤害性神经元过度兴奋。活体光学成像还发现电刺激体感皮层后爪激活区减少了 SCS。目前的研究结果表明，SCS 可以通过抑制 L4 背角的小胶质细胞活化来抑制足底 SNI 诱导的神经病理性疼痛，小胶质细胞活化参与脊髓神经元过度兴奋。SCS 可能是缓解神经损伤后神经病理性疼痛的潜在替代和补充药物疗法。
METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.